Table of Contents
Windows NT4 works with single master replication domain controllers. There is exactly one PDC (Primary Domain Controller) in the domain, and zero or more BDC's (Backup Domain Controllers). Samba 3 has all features found in Windows NT4 PDC and BDC, and more. This includes file and print serving, domain control with single logon, logon scripts, home directories and roaming profiles.
With Windows 2000 came Active Directory. AD includes multimaster replication and group policies. Samba 3 can only be a member server in Active Directory, it cannot manage group policies. Samba 4 can do this (in beta).
Samba 3 can act as a domain controller in its own domain. In a Windows NT4 domain, with one Windows NT4 PDC and zero or more BDC's, Samba 3 can only be a member server. The same is valid for Samba 3 in an Active Directory Domain. In short, a Samba 3 domain controller can not share domain control with Windows domain controllers.
The 'Windows for Workgroups' way of working, a client requests connection to a share and provides a password for that connection. Aanyone who knows a password for a share can access that share. This security model was common in Windows 3.11, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME.
The client will send a userid + password before the server knows which share the client wants to access. This mode should be used whenever the samba server is in control of the user database. Both for standalone and samba domain controllers.
This mode will allow samba to verify user credentials using NTLM in Windows NT4 and in all Active Directory domains. This is similar to Windows NT4 BDC's joining a native Windows 2000/3 Active Directory domain.
The previous chapters all used the smbpasswd user database. For domain control we opt for the tdbsam password backend. Another option would be to use LDAP. Larger domains will benefit from using LDAP instead of the not so scalable tdbsam. When you need more than one Domain Controller, then the Samba team advises to not use tdbsam.
Now is a good time to start adding comments in your smb.conf. First we will take a look at the naming of our domain and server in the [global] section, and at the domain controlling parameters.
The security must be set to user (which is the default). This mode will make samba control the user accounts, so it will allow samba to act as a domain controller.
security = user
os level = 33
The passdb backend parameter will determine whether samba uses smbpasswd, tdbsam or ldap.
passdb backend = tdbsam
Setting the preferred master parameter to yes will make the nmbd daemon force an election on startup.
preferred master = yes
Setting the domain logons parameter will make this samba server a domain controller.
domain logons = yes
Setting the domain master parameter can cause samba to claim the domain master browser role for its workgroup. Don't use this parameter in a workgroup with an active NT4 PDC.
domain master = yes
The screenshot below shows a sample [global] section for a samba domain controller.
[global] # names workgroup = SPORTS netbios name = DCSPORTS server string = Sports Domain Controller # domain control parameters security = user os level = 33 preferred master = Yes domain master = Yes domain logons = Yes
Part of the microsoft definition for a domain controller is that it should have a netlogon share. This is the relevant part of smb.conf to create this netlogon share on Samba.
[netlogon] comment = Network Logon Service path = /srv/samba/netlogon admin users = root guest ok = Yes browseable = No
We create some sections for file shares, to test the samba server. Users can all access the general sports file share, but only group members can access their own sports share.
[sports] comment = Information about all sports path = /srv/samba/sports valid users = @ntsports read only = No [tennis] comment = Information about tennis path = /srv/samba/tennis valid users = @nttennis read only = No [football] comment = Information about football path = /srv/samba/football valid users = @ntfootball read only = No
To be able to use users and groups in the samba domain controller, we can first set up some groups on the Linux computer.
[root@RHEL52 samba]# groupadd ntadmins [root@RHEL52 samba]# groupadd ntsports [root@RHEL52 samba]# groupadd ntfootball [root@RHEL52 samba]# groupadd nttennis
This enables us to add group membership info to some new users for our samba domain. Don't forget to give them a password.
[root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntadmins Administrator [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,nttennis venus [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,nttennis kim [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,nttennis jelena [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,ntfootball figo [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,ntfootball ronaldo [root@RHEL52 samba]# useradd -m -G ntsports,ntfootball pfaff
It is always safe to verify creation of users, groups and passwords in /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group.
[root@RHEL52 samba]# tail -11 /etc/group ntadmins:x:507:Administrator ntsports:x:508:venus,kim,jelena,figo,ronaldo,pfaff ntfootball:x:509:figo,ronaldo,pfaff nttennis:x:510:venus,kim,jelena Administrator:x:511: venus:x:512: kim:x:513: jelena:x:514: figo:x:515: ronaldo:x:516: pfaff:x:517:
[root@RHEL52 samba]# smbpasswd -a root New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: tdbsam_open: Converting version 0 database to version 3. Added user root.
Adding all the other users generates less output, because tdbsam is already created.
[root@RHEL4b samba]# smbpasswd -a root New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: Added user root.
Every NT computer (Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista) can become a member of a domain. Joining the domain (by right-clicking on My Computer) means that a computer account will be created in the domain. This computer account also has a password (but you cannot know it) to prevent other computers with the same name from accidentally becoming member of the domain. The computer account created by Samba is visible in the /etc/passwd file on Linux. Computer accounts appear as a normal user account, but end their name with a dollar sign. Below a screenshot of the windows 2003 computer account, created by Samba 3.
[root@RHEL52 samba]# tail -5 /etc/passwd jelena:x:510:514::/home/jelena:/bin/bash figo:x:511:515::/home/figo:/bin/bash ronaldo:x:512:516::/home/ronaldo:/bin/bash pfaff:x:513:517::/home/pfaff:/bin/bash w2003ee$:x:514:518::/home/nobody:/bin/false
To be able to create the account, you will need to provide credentials of an account with the permission to create accounts (by default only root can do this on Linux). And we will have to tell Samba how to to this, by adding an add machine script to the global section of smb.conf.
add machine script = /usr/sbin/useradd -s /bin/false -d /home/nobody %u
You can now join a Microsoft computer to the sports domain (with the root user). After reboot of the Microsoft computer, you will be able to logon with Administrator (password Stargate1), but you will get an error about your roaming profile. We will fix this in the next section.
When joining the samba domain, you have to enter the credentials of a Linux account that can create users (usually only root can do this). If the Microsoft computer complains with The parameter is incorrect, then you possibly forgot to add the add machine script.
For your information, if you want to force local profiles instead of roaming profiles, then simply add the following two lines to the global section in smb.conf.
logon home = logon path =
Microsoft computers store a lot of User Metadata and application data in a user profile. Making this profile available on the network will enable users to keep their Desktop and Application settings across computers. User profiles on the network are called roaming profiles or roving profiles. The Samba domain controller can manage these profiles. First we need to add the relevant section in smb.conf.
[Profiles] comment = User Profiles path = /srv/samba/profiles readonly = No profile acls = Yes
Besides the share section, we also need to set the location of the profiles share (this can be another Samba server) in the global section.
logon path = \\%L\Profiles\%U
The %L variable is the name of this Samba server, the %U variable translates to the username. After adding a user to smbpasswd and letting the user log on and off, the profile of the user will look like this.
[root@RHEL4b samba]# ll /srv/samba/profiles/Venus/ total 568 drwxr-xr-x 4 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Application Data drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Cookies drwxr-xr-x 3 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Desktop drwxr-xr-x 3 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Favorites drwxr-xr-x 4 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 My Documents drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 NetHood -rwxr--r-- 1 Venus Venus 524288 Jul 5 2007 NTUSER.DAT -rwxr--r-- 1 Venus Venus 1024 Jul 5 2007 NTUSER.DAT.LOG -rw-r--r-- 1 Venus Venus 268 Jul 5 10:03 ntuser.ini drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 PrintHood drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Recent drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 SendTo drwxr-xr-x 3 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Start Menu drwxr-xr-x 2 Venus Venus 4096 Jul 5 10:03 Templates
We have users on Unix, we have groups on Unix that contain those users.
[root@RHEL4b samba]# grep nt /etc/group ... ntadmins:x:506:Administrator ntsports:x:507:Venus,Serena,Kim,Figo,Pfaff nttennis:x:508:Venus,Serena,Kim ntfootball:x:509:Figo,Pfaff [root@RHEL4b samba]#
smbpasswd -a Venus
Does this mean that Venus can access the tennis and the sports shares ? Yes, all access works fine on the Samba server. But the nttennis group is not available on the windows machines. To make the groups available on windows (like in the ntfs security tab of files and folders), we have to map unix groups to windows groups. To do this, we use the net groupmap command.
[root@RHEL4b samba]# net groupmap add ntgroup="tennis" unixgroup=nttennis type=d No rid or sid specified, choosing algorithmic mapping Successully added group tennis to the mapping db [root@RHEL4b samba]# net groupmap add ntgroup="football" unixgroup=ntfootball type=d No rid or sid specified, choosing algorithmic mapping Successully added group football to the mapping db [root@RHEL4b samba]# net groupmap add ntgroup="sports" unixgroup=ntsports type=d No rid or sid specified, choosing algorithmic mapping Successully added group sports to the mapping db [root@RHEL4b samba]#
Now you can use the Samba groups on all NTFS volumes on members of the domain.
Before testing a logon script, make sure it has the proper carriage returns that DOS files have.
[root@RHEL4b netlogon]# cat start.bat net use Z: \\DCSPORTS0\SPORTS [root@RHEL4b netlogon]# unix2dos start.bat unix2dos: converting file start.bat to DOS format ... [root@RHEL4b netlogon]#
Then copy the scripts to the netlogon share, and add the following parameter to smb.conf.
logon script = start.bat
1. Setup Samba as a domain controller.
2. Create the shares salesdata, salespresentations and meetings. Salesdata must be accessible to all sales people and to all managers. SalesPresentations is only for all sales people. Meetings is only accessible to all managers. Use groups to accomplish this.
3. Join a Microsoft computer to your domain. Verify the creation of a computer account in /etc/passwd.
4. Setup and verify the proper working of roaming profiles.
5. Find information about home directories for users, set them up and verify that users receive their home directory mapped under the H:-drive in MS Windows Explorer.
6. Use a couple of samba domain groups with members to set acls on ntfs. Verify that it works!
7. Knowing that the %m variable contains the computername, create a separate log file for every computer(account).
8. Knowing that %s contains the client operating system, include a smb.%s.conf file that contains a share. (The share will only be visible to clients with that OS).
9. If time permits (or if you are waiting for other students to finish this practice), then combine "valid users" and "invalid users" with groups and usernames with "hosts allow" and "hosts deny" and make a table of which get priority over which.