Table of Contents
Don't forget that the name of a device strictly speaking has no meaning since the kernel will use the major and minor number to find the hardware! See the man page of mknod and the devices.txt file in the Linux kernel source for more info.
On the official Linux device list (http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/) we find the names for SCSI tapes (major 9 char). SCSI tape devices are located underneath /dev/st and are numbered starting with 0 for the first tape device.
/dev/st0 First tape device /dev/st1 Second tape device /dev/st2 Third tape device
/dev/nst0 First no rewind tape device /dev/nst1 Second no rewind tape device /dev/nst2 Third no rewind tape device
By default, SCSI tapes on Linux will use the highest hardware compression that is supported by the tape device. To lower the compression level, append one of the letters l (low), m (medium) or a (auto) to the tape name.
/dev/st0l First low compression tape device /dev/st0m First medium compression tape device /dev/nst2m Third no rewind medium compression tape device
On the official Linux device list (http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/) we find the names for IDE tapes (major 37 char). IDE tape devices are located underneath /dev/ht and are numbered starting with 0 for the first tape device. No rewind and compression is similar to SCSI tapes.
/dev/ht0 First IDE tape device /dev/nht0 Second no rewind IDE tape device /dev/ht0m First medium compression IDE tape device
It can be beneficial to compress files before backup. The two most popular tools for compression of regular files on Linux are gzip/gunzip and bzip2/bunzip2. Below you can see gzip in action, notice that it adds the .gz extension to the file.
paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx* -rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 8813553 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ gzip allfiles.txt paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx* -rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 931863 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt.gz paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ gunzip allfiles.txt.gz paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx* -rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 8813553 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$
In general, gzip is much faster than bzip2, but the latter one compresses a lot better. Let us compare the two.
paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ cp allfiles.txt bllfiles.txt paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ time gzip allfiles.txt real 0m0.050s user 0m0.041s sys 0m0.009s paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ time bzip2 bllfiles.txt real 0m5.968s user 0m5.794s sys 0m0.076s paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$ ls -l ?llfiles.tx* -rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 931863 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt.gz -rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 708871 May 12 10:52 bllfiles.txt.bz2 paul@RHELv4u4:~/test$
The tar utility gets its name from Tape ARchive. This tool will receive and send files to a destination (typically a tape or a regular file). The c option is used to create a tar archive (or tarfile), the f option to name/create the tarfile. The example below takes a backup of /etc into the file /backup/etc.tar .
root@RHELv4u4:~# tar cf /backup/etc.tar /etc root@RHELv4u4:~# ls -l /backup/etc.tar -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 47800320 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar root@RHELv4u4:~#
Compression can be achieved without pipes since tar uses the z flag to compress with gzip, and the j flag to compress with bzip2.
root@RHELv4u4:~# tar czf /backup/etc.tar.gz /etc root@RHELv4u4:~# tar cjf /backup/etc.tar.bz2 /etc root@RHELv4u4:~# ls -l /backup/etc.ta* -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 47800320 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6077340 May 12 11:48 /backup/etc.tar.bz2 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8496607 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar.gz root@RHELv4u4:~#
The t option is used to list the contents of a tar file. Verbose mode is enabled with v (also useful when you want to see the files being archived during archiving).
root@RHELv4u4:~# tar tvf /backup/etc.tar drwxr-xr-x root/root 0 2007-05-12 09:38:21 etc/ -rw-r--r-- root/root 2657 2004-09-27 10:15:03 etc/warnquota.conf -rw-r--r-- root/root 13136 2006-11-03 17:34:50 etc/mime.types drwxr-xr-x root/root 0 2004-11-03 13:35:50 etc/sound/ ...
To list a specific file in a tar archive, use the t option, added with the filename (without leading /).
root@RHELv4u4:~# tar tvf /backup/etc.tar etc/resolv.conf -rw-r--r-- root/root 77 2007-05-12 08:31:32 etc/resolv.conf root@RHELv4u4:~#
Use the x flag to restore a tar archive, or a single file from the archive. Remember that by default tar will restore the file in the current directory.
root@RHELv4u4:~# tar xvf /backup/etc.tar etc/resolv.conf etc/resolv.conf root@RHELv4u4:~# ls -l /etc/resolv.conf -rw-r--r-- 2 root root 40 May 12 12:05 /etc/resolv.conf root@RHELv4u4:~# ls -l etc/resolv.conf -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 77 May 12 08:31 etc/resolv.conf root@RHELv4u4:~#
root ~# tar cpzf /backup/etc_with_perms.tgz /etc root ~# tar cpzf /backup/etc_no_sysconf.tgz /etc --exclude /etc/sysconfig root ~# ls -l /backup/etc_* -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8434293 May 12 12:48 /backup/etc_no_sysconf.tgz -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8496591 May 12 12:48 /backup/etc_with_perms.tgz root ~#
You can also create a text file with names of files and directories to archive, and then supply this file to tar with the -T flag.
root@RHELv4u4:~# find /etc -name *.conf > files_to_archive.txt root@RHELv4u4:~# find /home -name *.pdf >> files_to_archive.txt root@RHELv4u4:~# tar cpzf /backup/backup.tgz -T files_to_archive.txt
The tar utility can receive filenames from the find command, with the help of xargs.
find /etc -type f -name "*.conf" | xargs tar czf /backup/confs.tar.gz
You can also use tar to copy a directory, this is more efficient than using cp -r.
(cd /etc; tar -cf - . ) | (cd /backup/copy_of_etc/; tar -xpf - )
Another example of tar, this copies a directory securely over the network.
(cd /etc;tar -cf - . )|(ssh user@srv 'cd /backup/cp_of_etc/; tar -xf - ')
tar can be used together with gzip and copy a file to a remote server through ssh
cat backup.tar | gzip | ssh firstname.lastname@example.org "cat - > backup.tgz"
Compress the tar backup when it is on the network, but leave it uncompressed at the destination.
cat backup.tar | gzip | ssh email@example.com "gunzip|cat - > backup.tar"
Same as the previous, but let ssh handle the compression
cat backup.tar | ssh -C firstname.lastname@example.org "cat - > backup.tar"
Linux uses multilevel incremental backups using distinct levels. A full backup is a backup at level 0. A higher level x backup will include all changes since the last level x-1 backup.
Suppose you take a full backup on Monday (level 0) and a level 1 backup on Tuesday, then the Tuesday backup will contain all changes since Monday. Taking a level 2 on Wednesday will contain all changes since Tuesday (the last level 2-1). A level 3 backup on Thursday will contain all changes since Wednesday (the last level 3-1). Another level 3 on Friday will also contain all changes since Wednesday. A level 2 backup on Saturday would take all changes since the last level 1 from Tuesday.
While dump is similar to tar, it is also very different because it looks at the file system. Where tar receives a lists of files to backup, dump will find files to backup by itself by examining ext2. Files found by dump will be copied to a tape or regular file. In case the target is not big enough to hold the dump (end-of-media), it is broken into multiple volumes.
Restoring files that were backed up with dump is done with the restore command. In the example below we take a full level 0 backup of two partitions to a SCSI tape. The no rewind is mandatory to put the volumes behind each other on the tape.
dump 0f /dev/nst0 /boot dump 0f /dev/nst0 /
Listing files in a dump archive is done with dump -t, and you can compare files with dump -C.
You can omit files from a dump by changing the dump attribute with the chattr command. The d attribute on ext will tell dump to skip the file, even during a full backup. In the following example, /etc/hosts is excluded from dump archives.
chattr +d /etc/hosts
To restore the complete file system with restore, use the -r option. This can be useful to change the size or block size of a file system. You should have a clean file system mounted and cd'd into it. Like this example shows.
mke2fs /dev/hda3 mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/data cd /mnt/data restore rf /dev/nst0
To extract only one file or directory from a dump, use the -x option.
restore -xf /dev/st0 /etc
find sends filenames to cpio, which puts the files in an archive.
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV -O archive.cpio
The same, but compressed with gzip
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV | gzip -c > archive.cpio.gz
Now pipe it through ssh (backup files to a compressed file on another machine)
find /etc -depth -print|cpio -oaV|gzip -c|ssh server "cat - > etc.cpio.gz"
find sends filenames to cpio | cpio sends files to ssh | ssh sends files to cpio 'cpio extracts files'
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV | ssh user@host 'cpio -imVd'
the same but reversed: copy a dir from the remote host to the local machine
ssh user@host "find path -depth -print | cpio -oaV" | cpio -imVd
Some people use dd to create backups. This can be very powerful, but dd backups can only be restored to very similar partitions or devices. There are however a lot of useful things possible with dd. Some examples.
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/path/to/cdrom.ISO
A little outdated maybe, but just in case : make an image file from a 1.44MB floppy. Blocksize is defined by bs, and count contains the number of blocks to copy.
dd if=/dev/floppy of=/path/to/floppy.img bs=1024 count=1440
dd if=/dev/hda of=/MBR.img bs=512 count=1
This example shows how dd can copy files. Copy the file summer.txt to copy_of_summer.txt .
dd if=~/summer.txt of=~/copy_of_summer.txt
And who needs ghost when dd can create a (compressed) image of a partition.
dd if=/dev/hdb2 of=/image_of_hdb2.IMG dd if=/dev/hdb2 | gzip > /image_of_hdb2.IMG.gz
dd can be used to create a file of any size. The first example creates a one MEBIbyte file, the second a one MEGAbyte file.
dd if=/dev/zero of=file1MB count=1024 bs=1024 dd if=/dev/zero of=file1MB count=1000 bs=1024
The split command is useful to split files into smaller files. This can be useful to fit the file onto multiple instances of a medium too small to contain the complete file. In the example below, a file of size 5000 bytes is split into three smaller files, with maximum 2000 bytes each.
paul@laika:~/test$ ls -l total 8 -rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 5000 2007-09-09 20:46 bigfile1 paul@laika:~/test$ split -b 2000 bigfile1 splitfile. paul@laika:~/test$ ls -l total 20 -rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 5000 2007-09-09 20:46 bigfile1 -rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 2000 2007-09-09 20:47 splitfile.aa -rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 2000 2007-09-09 20:47 splitfile.ab -rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 1000 2007-09-09 20:47 splitfile.ac
!! Careful with tar options and the position of the backup file, mistakes can destroy your system!!
1. Create a directory (or partition if you like) for backups. Link (or mount) it under /mnt/backup.
2a. Use tar to backup /etc in /mnt/backup/etc_date.tgz, the backup must be gzipped. (Replace date with the current date)
2b. Use tar to backup /bin to /mnt/backup/bin_date.tar.bz2, the backup must be bzip2'd.
2c. Choose a file in /etc and /bin and verify with tar that the file is indeed backed up.
2d. Extract those two files to your home directory.
3a. Create a backup directory for your neighbour, make it accessible under /mnt/neighbourName
3b. Combine ssh and tar to put a backup of your /boot on your neighbours computer in /mnt/YourName
4a. Combine find and cpio to create a cpio archive of /etc.
4b. Choose a file in /etc and restore it from the cpio archive into your home directory.
5. Use dd and ssh to put a backup of the master boot record on your neighbours computer.
6. (On the real computer) Create and mount an ISO image of the ubuntu cdrom.
7. Combine dd and gzip to create a 'ghost' image of one of your partitions on another partition.
8. Use dd to create a five megabyte file in ~/testsplit and name it biggest. Then split this file in smaller two megabyte parts.
dd if=/dev/zero of=~/testsplit/biggest count=5000 bs=1024
split -b 2000000 biggest parts